Objective: The frequent neurological condition epilepsy disrupts the brain's regular electrochemical processes. Similar to a seizure, epilepsy is a sign of aberrant brain activity. The developed world has an epilepsy prevalence of 0.5–1%, whereas the underdeveloped world has a larger prevalence due to more risk factors. There are several antiepileptic medications on the market, but their therapeutic efficacy is severely limited by their adverse effects and drug interactions. Owing to their widespread acceptance and beneficial efficiency with few side effects, herbal medicines are used extensively throughout the world. The current study's purpose is to ascertain whether different fruit components, such as fruit juice, residue, and pericarp of Citrus maxima Linn, have anti-seizure properties when used to treat rats with pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures.
Methods: To test the antiepileptic potential in pentylenetetrazole-induced epileptic rats, the aqueous extract of fruit pericarp, an aqueous solution of lyophilized powdered fruit juice, and residues of Citrus maxima L were each administered at varying doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight. The experimental animals' physical actions, such as immobility, swimming, and motor activity, were evaluated. By measuring and analysing Neurotransmitter levels, including those of GABA, glutamate, norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine, as well as the effects of PTZ on the animal's brain, were examined. Result: The results of the phytochemical screening showed that tannin, coumarin, quinine, glycosides, sugar, and phenols were present. On the thirty-day mark, acute PTZ injection at a dose of 75 mg/kg body weight resulted in seizures that lengthened immobility and reduced swimming time. The PTZ enhanced levels of lipid peroxidation, oxidative stress, and degeneration of neural and non-neural cells (glial cells), while the aqueous extract of various portions of the fruit of Citrus maxima Linn restored levels of glutamate, dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine, and GABA.
Conclusion: According to the findings, convulsions can be treated with Citrus maxima Linn, as a traditional source.
Key words: Citrus maxima Linn, Convulsions, Epilepsy, GABA, Neurotransmitters, Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ).